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國際

不得對精神上無行為能力者執行死刑!

不得對精神上無行為能力者執行死刑!
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2014年5月21日臺北捷運發生列車上隨機殺人事件;嫌犯為21歲的男大學生鄭捷;事件造成4死24傷。

2015年3月6日,新北地方法院一審宣判,判決鄭捷四個死刑,褫奪公權終身。同年10月30日,臺灣高等法院二審宣判,判決鄭捷四個死刑,褫奪公權終身。2016年4月22日,最高法院三審維持原持原判。判決死刑定讞經18天後執行槍決,且僅花7小時完成審查簽署。

政治爭議

批評執行死刑的台灣意見指責馬英九急急槍決,因為5月20日將由蔡英文執政,「蔡英文是廢死聯盟的頭子,不會槍決的鄭捷。」

台北市長柯文哲表示:「反正事情就發生了,你現在問我什麼」,「該怎麼辦就怎麼辦啊。」

問題是,他們兩人都沒有表態反對!

問題關鍵

問題關鍵是二審判決認定鄭捷的家庭、社會教育健全,也無精神障礙,更沒欠缺辨識、決斷能力,因此認為鄭捷應為自己任意、無理剝奪他人生命的犯罪行為負責。

台灣刑事訴訟法

2015年版本的台灣刑事訴訟法規定:

第465條(停止執行死刑事由及恢復執行)
受死刑之諭知者,如在心神喪失中,由司法行政最高機關命令停止執行。
受死刑諭知之婦女懷胎者,於其生產前,由司法行政最高機關命令停止執行。
依前二項規定停止執行者,於其痊癒或生產後,非有司法行政最高機關命令,不得執行。

聯合國國際公約

1984/50 號決議

第 1984/50 號決議批准:
3. 犯罪時未滿 18 歲的人不得判處死刑,對孕婦或新生嬰兒的母親,或精神病患者不得執行死刑。

1989/64號決議
1989/64決議案,不得對弱智者執行死刑。
(d) Eliminating the death penalty for persons suffering from mental retardation or extremely limited mental competence, whether at the stage of sentence or execution;

2006年綱領

聯合國的2006 Compendium,第五部,
(g) 不對患有任何形式精神失常症狀的人判處死刑或處決任何這種人;
聯合國大會第 62/149 號決議

2007 年,聯合國大會通過 “暫停執行處決”。

2010年大會決議

重申關於暫停使用死刑問題的2007 年12 月18 日第62/149 號決議和2008年12 月18日第63/168 號決議,其中大會籲請仍保留死刑的國家暫停執行處決,目標是廢除死刑,意識到施行死刑方面的任何司法失誤或失敗都是無法逆轉和補救的。

後記

正如,香港大律師公會主席譚允芝評銅鑼灣書店5人失蹤中李波「認罪」事件:「一般智力嘅人都會覺得問題仲多過答案」。

槍斃鄭捷事件說明台灣並非一個文明的國度。而事件令標榜文明的蔡英文和柯文哲被針在恥辱之柱上,因為這是一個大是一非的問題,不可以迴避。

附錄

經濟及社會理事會一九八四年五月二十五日第 1984/50 號決議批准
1. 在沒有廢除死刑的國家,只有最嚴重的罪行可判處死刑,但應理解為死刑的範圍只限於對蓄意而結果為害命或其他極端嚴重的罪刑。
2. 只有犯罪時法律明文規定應判死刑的罪行可判處死刑,但應理解為,如果在犯罪之後法律規定可以輕判,該罪犯應予輕判。
3. 犯罪時未滿 18 歲的人不得判處死刑,對孕婦或新生嬰兒的母親,或精神病患者不得執行死刑。
4. 只有在對被告的罪行根據明確和令人信服的證據、對事實沒有其他解釋餘地的情況下,才能判處死刑。
5. 只有在經過法律程式提供確保審判公正的各種可能的保障,至少相當於《公民權利和政治權利國際公約》第 14 條所載的各項措施,包括任何被懷疑或被控告犯了可判死刑之罪的人有權在訴訟過程的每一階段取得適當法律協助後,才可根據主管法院的終審執行死刑。
6. 任何被判處死刑的人均有權向較高級的法院上訴,並應採取步驟確保這些上訴必須受理。
7. 任何被判處死刑的人均有權尋求赦免或減刑,所有死刑案件均可給予赦免或減刑。
8. 在上訴或採取其他追訴程式或與赦免或減刑有關的其他程式期間,不得執行死刑。
9. 判處死刑後,應以儘量減輕痛苦的方式執行。

Resolution 1989/64
15th plenary meeting
24 May 1989
Implementation of the safeguards guaranteeing protection of the rights of those facing the death penalty

The Economic and Social Council,

Recalling its resolution 1984/50 of 25 May 1984, in which it approved the safeguards guaranteeing protection of the rights of those facing the death penalty,
Recalling also resolution 15 of the Seventh United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders,
Recalling further section X of Council resolution 1986/10 of 21 May 1986, in which the Council requested a study on the question of the death penalty and new contributions of the criminal sciences to the matter,
Taking note of the report of the Secretary-General on the implementation of the United Nations safeguards guaranteeing protection of the rights of those facing the death penalty,
Noting with satisfaction that a large number of Member States have provided the Secretary-General with information on the implementation of the safeguards and have made contributions,
Noting with appreciation the study on the question of the death penalty and the new contributions of the criminal sciences to the matter,
Alarmed at the continued occurrence of practices incompatible with the safeguards guaranteeing protection of the rights of those facing the death penalty,
Aware that effective implementation of those safeguards requires a review of relevant national legislation and the improved dissemination of the text to all persons and entities concerned with them, as specified in resolution 15 of the Seventh Congress,
Convinced that further progress should be achieved towards more effective implementation of the safeguards at the national level on the understanding that they shall not be invoked to delay or to prevent the abolition of capital punishment,
Acknowledging the need for comprehensive and accurate information and additional research about the implementation of the safeguards and the death penalty in general in every region of the world,
1. Recommends that Member States take steps to implement the safeguards and strengthen further the protection of the rights of those facing the death penalty, where applicable, by:
(a) Affording special protection to persons facing charges for which the death penalty is provided by allowing time and facilities for the preparation of their defence, including the adequate assistance of counsel at every stage of the proceedings, above and beyond the protection afforded in non-capital cases;
(b) Providing for mandatory appeals or review with provisions for clemency or pardon in all cases of capital offence;
(c) Establishing a maximum age beyond which a person may not be sentenced to death or executed;
(d) Eliminating the death penalty for persons suffering from mental retardation or extremely limited mental competence, whether at the stage of sentence or execution;
2. Invites Member States to co-operate with specialized bodies, non-governmental organizations, academic institutions and specialists in the field in efforts to conduct research on the use of the death penalty in every region of the world;
3. Also invites Member States to facilitate the efforts of the Secretary-General to gather comprehensive, timely and accurate information about the implementation of the safeguards and the death penalty in general;
4. Invites Member States that have not yet done so to review the extent to which their legislation provides for the safeguards guaranteeing protection of the rights of those facing the death penalty as set out in the annex to Economic and Social Council resolution 1984/50;
5. Urges Member States to publish, for each category of offence for which the death penalty is authorized, and if possible on an annual basis, information about the use of the death penalty, including the number of persons sentenced to death, the number of executions actually carried out, the number of persons under sentence of death, the number of death sentences reversed or commuted on appeal and the number of instances in which clemency has been granted, and to include information on the extent to which the safeguards referred to above are incorporated in national law;
6. Recommends that the report of the Secretary-General on the question of capital punishment, to be submitted to the Economic and Social Council in 1990, in pursuance of Council resolution 1745 (LIV) of 16 May 1973, should henceforth cover the implementation of the safeguards as well as the use of capital punishment;
7. Requests the Secretary-General to publish the study on the question of the death penalty and the new contributions of the criminal sciences to the matter prepared pursuant to section X of Economic and Social Council resolution 1986/10 and to make it available, with other relevant documentation, to the Eighth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders.

暫停實施死刑

聯合國大會第 62/149 號決議
2007 年 12 月 18 日 AI Index: ACT 50/020/2007
12 月 18 日,聯合國大會以 104 票贊成、54 票反對和 29 票棄權的壓倒性多數,通過決議呼籲“暫停執行處決”。

刑事訴訟法

【修正日期】民國104年1月23日 (西歷 2015年)
【公布日期】民國104年2月4日
第465條(停止執行死刑事由及恢復執行)
  受死刑之諭知者,如在心神喪失中,由司法行政最高機關命令停止執行。
  受死刑諭知之婦女懷胎者,於其生產前,由司法行政最高機關命令停止執行。
  依前二項規定停止執行者,於其痊癒或生產後,非有司法行政最高機關命令,不得執行。

2006 Compendium提綱 11月
Compendium of United Nations
standards and norms in crime prevention and criminal justice
19. Safeguards guaranteeing protection of the rights of those facing the death penalty*
3. Persons below 18 years of age at the time of the commission of the crime shall not be sentenced to death, nor shall the death sentence be carried out on pregnant women, or on new mothers, or on persons who have become insane.
(g) 不對患有任何形式精神失常症狀的人判處死刑或處決任何這種人;

Resolution 1989/64
15th plenary meeting
24 May 1989

Implementation of the safeguards guaranteeing protection of the rights of those facing the death penalty

The Economic and Social Council,

Recalling its resolution 1984/50 of 25 May 1984, in which it approved the safeguards guaranteeing protection of the rights of those facing the death penalty,
Recalling also resolution 15 of the Seventh United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders,
Recalling further section X of Council resolution 1986/10 of 21 May 1986, in which the Council requested a study on the question of the death penalty and new contributions of the criminal sciences to the matter,

(d) Eliminating the death penalty for persons suffering from mental retardation or extremely limited mental competence, whether at the stage of sentence or execution;

第六十五屆會議

議程專案
大會決議
[根據第三委員會的報告(A/65/456/Add.2(Part II))通過]
65/206. 暫停使用死刑
大會,遵循《聯合國憲章》的宗旨和原則,回顧《世界人權宣言》、《公民及政治權利國際公約》和《兒童權利公約》,重申關於暫停使用死刑問題的2007 年12 月18 日第62/149 號決議和2008年12 月18日第63/168 號決議,其中大會籲請仍保留死刑的國家暫停執行處決,目標是廢除死刑,意識到施行死刑方面的任何司法失誤或失敗都是無法逆轉和補救的,深信暫停使用死刑有助於尊重人的尊嚴及加強和逐漸發展人權,並認為死刑的威懾作用並無任何確切證據,注意到目前就死刑問題展開的國內辯論和區域倡議,以及有越來越多的國家願意提供有關使用死刑情況的資料,又注意到會員國在暫停使用死刑方面的技術合作,

1. 歡迎秘書長關於第63/168號決議執行情況的報告及其所載各項建議;
2. 又歡迎一些國家採取步驟減少可判處死刑的罪名,而且有越來越多的國
家作出暫停執行處決的決定,許多國家繼而廢除死刑,
3. 籲請所有國家:
(a) 尊重經濟及社會理事會1984年5月25日第1984/50號決議附件就保護死囚權利的保障措施所規定的國際標準,特別是最低標準,並向秘書長提供這方面的資料;
(b) 提供使用死刑情況的相關資料,這有助於展開可能的知情和透明的全國辯論;
(c) 逐步限制死刑的使用,減少可以判處死刑的罪名;
(d) 考慮暫停執行處決,目標是廢除死刑;
4. 籲請已廢除死刑的國家不再恢復死刑,並鼓勵他們分享這方面的經驗;
5. 請秘書長向大會第六十七屆會議報告本決議執行情況;
6. 決定在大會第六十七屆會議題為“促進和保護人權”的專案下繼續審議這一事項。

2010年12月21日
第71次全體會議

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