立即捐款

社運

我們為何發佈人權報告

我們為何發佈人權報告
廣告

廣告

Why We Issue the Human Rights Reports

Today, Secretary Kerry will release the State Department’s 39th annual Human Rights Reports, a comprehensive review of human rights conditions in 199 countries and territories around the world. Mandated by Congress, these reports are the United States’ factual and authoritative statement on the progress of international human rights and the most widely read document issued by the State Department.

今天,美國國務卿克里將發佈國務院第39號“國別人權報告”,對199個國家和地方的人權狀況進行全面審視。在美國國會授權下,這些報告是在廣泛閱讀國務院文檔後,美國對國際人權進展的事實陳述和權威說法。

The Human Rights Reports detail the violence and abuse suffered both at the hands of governments and of non-state actors by people all over the world. In some cases, as a result of civil society groups and sustained international pressure, conditions have changed for the better. Yet in others, human rights violations continue unchecked or have worsened.

“國別人權報告”詳細羅列世界各國人民受政府或非政府行為下的暴力和虐待。在某些情況裡,由於民間社會和持續國際壓力的努力,情況有所改善。然而在其他情況裡,侵犯人權的行為仍然繼續,甚至惡化。

We issue these reports to underscore America’s commitment to the protection and advancement of human rights. We use the reports to shape American foreign policy, including our determination and allocation of foreign aid and security sector assistance. But they are not just an annual bureaucratic gesture. Rather, the reports serve as our moral baseline. With them, we say, these are the values and principles for which the U.S. stands; these are the universally recognized human rights of all people. The reports also help promote awareness of the human rights abuses and violations committed over the past year and they identify where and when human rights are well protected.

我們發佈這份報告,是為了強調美國致力於促進人權。我們運用這份報告來制訂美國的外交政策,包括我們對國外人道和安全援助撥款。這並非一個每年一度的官僚姿態。報告是我們的道德底線。有了它,我們會說,這些代表美國的價值觀和原則;這些是世人公認的普世價值。報告有助於提醒我們,在過去一年發生的侵犯人權事件,和確定那時那地,人權得到保護。

Sometimes we have to work with governments with which we disagree: the truth is that these are tough issues; there’s no single approach or remedy, and change does not happen in the span of a few news cycles. But we must and do press for change because our hopes for peace, security and prosperity depend on respect for human rights. With the human rights reports, we make it clear that this is the standard toward which we as an international community must strive.

有時候,我們必須與某些政府合作,即使我們不同意它的作法:這是棘手的事情;它沒有簡單的做法,需要巨大努力。但我們必須不斷施以壓力,因為和平,安全和繁榮取決於人權得到尊重。隨著人權報告的發佈,我們清楚地表明,這是我們作為一個國際社會必須堅持的準則。

We also issue the reports to provide a voice for the voiceless. Most people are familiar with the human rights abuses that make headlines, and when you scan the headlines—from Syria to Russia—it is clear the 2014 was a tough year for human rights. But as the reports reveal, there are many more human rights abuses that do not make headlines. We have an obligation to ensure that these abuses are not buried, that these people are not forgotten, and that violators of human rights will be held accountable for their crimes.

我們發佈報告,是為無聲者發聲。我們都熟悉一些昭然若揭的侵犯人權事件,它們都成了頭條新聞 ─ 從敘利亞到俄羅斯 。顯然地,2014年是人權艱難的一年。報告同時顯示,有更多的侵犯人權得不到注視。我們有責任確保這些事件不被湮沒,受害者沒有被遺忘,侵犯人權者被追究負責。

And as we issue these reports, we recognize that American history, too, has been marked by human rights failings. The United States does not speak from a position of arrogance or self-righteousness. As President Obama explained last week, “America never makes a claim about being perfect. We do make a claim about being open to change… It’s precisely because we’re imperfect that we believe it’s appropriate for us to stand up.” We speak, in short, from knowledge of our own history and our own struggle for progress. As President Obama added, “When Dr. King was in jail, people outside the United States spoke up on his behalf. And I would be betraying our history if I did not do the same.”

當我們發佈這些報告時,我們意識到,在美國歷史上,也有人權的缺陷。美國不會傲慢或自以為是地說話。正如奧巴馬總統上週解釋,“美國從未自許完美無缺。我們承諾開放和改變.....這恰恰是因為我們不完美,我們相信改變可以幫助我們強大。”簡言之,我們從自己的歷史教訓和為奮發進步而說話。正如奧巴馬總統補充說,“當馬丁‧路德‧金博士在監獄裡,外國人為他說話。如果我沒有同樣地做,我會背叛了我們的歷史。”

The true test of a nation’s commitment to human rights is not whether problems exist but whether its laws and institutions allow those problems to be solved. We issue the human rights reports with the hope that government, civil society leaders, activists, and citizens will reflect on the state of human rights in their respective nations and on how we can work together to further the protection of human rights for all people in all cultures and all communities.

一個國家的人權承諾得到考驗,不是有否濫權存在,而是它的法律和制度是否容許問題得到解決。我們發出人權報告,希望各地政府,社會領袖,社會活動家和其公民將人權問題反映在其各自的國家內。我們可以共同努力,為所有的文明,所有社會,促進人權。

譯後記

正當美國國務院解釋為何每年撰寫“國別人權報告”之際。中國國務院新聞辦公室26日發表《2014年美國的人權紀錄》,回應美國政府發佈的“國別人權報告”。

中國國務院新聞辦公室說:「人權紀錄說,美國國務院於當地時間6月25日再次發佈國別人權報告,對世界許多國家人權狀況評頭論足,而偏偏對自己糟糕的人權紀錄,毫無反省改進之意。大量事實證明,2014年,以“人權衛士”自居的美國,舊有人權問題未見改善,新的人權問題不斷出現,自身人權狀況更加堪憂,侵犯他國人權更加肆無忌憚,在國際人權場合被亮更多“紅牌”。」

姑且不論事實的陳述是否正確,兩者的境界躍然紙上。

廣告