國際

昂山素姬無意中觸及中國的痛處!

廣告
昂山素姬無意中觸及中國的痛處!

廣告

習近平的「一帶一路」四處擴張。不知是否中國人習氣使然,它的不少項目觸發當地抗議,甚至因軍警鎮壓導致人命傷亡(註一)。它與緬甸北部毗鄰也曾因偷伐林木而被指責(註二),並間接地介入了緬北游擊隊與政府軍的衝突。

在今天的若開邦羅興亞人被種族清洗中,中國外交部表示它會做嘢(註三)。新華社文章(註3.1)對羅興亞人的遭遇,可說「涼薄」,若然不是「冷血」的話。

文章說:「調查委員會發現不少指認為虛報,數字有誇張,一些羅興亞人受幕後勢力威脅,向媒體和國際組織說謊。」很可惜,筆者在這63頁報告中,無論是用 keywords 或其他方法,都找不到這段。

中國官方新聞稿說「保持著密切的溝通」,因為它有重要的投資項目在那(註四)。中國石油自稱的「環保文化」、「優先考慮緬甸本地」和「賠償方案」,其後都被《若開邦顧問委員會最終報告》質疑。

「中緬天然氣管道已於2013年9月30日開通,這項總投資超過25億美元」(註五),被昂山素姬在《若開邦顧問委員會最終報告》中無意觸及

該委員會的目的是探討解決若開邦困境的方法,換言之,中國在其特區內的運油管項目是問題之一。 (註六)

顧問報告指責四個問題:

1. 收地不公引起當地人不滿;
2. 賠償太少;
3. 破壞環境;
4. 引入大量外勞。(註七)

caused significant local tension related to land seizures, insufficient compensation for damages, environmental degradation, and an influx of foreign workers

在報告的若開邦經濟及社會發展的十個建議中,它要求政府(或中國企業)不要盲搶地。(註八)

The Government should ensure adequate compensation for appropriated land.

後記

《若開邦顧問委員會最終報告》在這方面用詞不重,這是可以理解的。但它出自非西方的、沿線較落後國家的半官方報告,這可能是首次。它間接地出自昂山素姬之口,在外交上相當敏感。

備註

註一

肯亞蒙內鐵路可能是一帶一路的引爆點
2017/6/11

「一帶一路」的派錢 $ 方案
2017/5/17

緬甸內戰與中國伐木

緬甸與中國|劉山青|謎米博客
2015年03月12日

中國駐緬甸大使館就中資企業遭受衝擊事件向緬方提出嚴正交涉

文章來源:駐緬甸經商參處 2017-02-24 22:24

2月23日,中國駐緬甸大使館負責人緊急聯繫緬甸外交部、內政部、仰光省政府負責人,就仰光中資服裝廠遭不法分子衝擊事件向緬方提出嚴正交涉,要求緬方立即採取有效措施,確保中國公民人身安全和中資企業財產安全,並依法懲處肇事者。緬方承諾,緬政府會依法保護中國企業和人員的安全和權益,將儘快妥善處理有關問題。同日,中國駐緬甸大使館工作人員赴上述中資服裝廠開展工作,探望了中資企業員工,並敦促緬方執法部門儘快恢復現場秩序。中國駐緬甸大使館正繼續做有關方面工作,全力維護中國公民和中資機構在緬合法權益。

註三

2017年4月26日外交部發言人耿爽主持例行記者會
2017-04-26

問:孟加拉外交部官員表示,中國主動提出願意協助調解“羅興亞人”問題。中方為何主動就此提供幫助?目前各方溝通情況如何?中方是否已與緬甸溝通?是在什麼級別進行的溝通?中方將如何發揮調解作用?

答:根據我掌握的情況,外交部亞洲事務特使孫國祥4月24日至27日訪問孟加拉,會見了孟加拉外交部的相關官員。

關於你提到的緬甸若開邦有關問題,作為友好鄰邦,中方希望緬甸政局穩定、民族和諧、經濟發展,通過與有關各方對話溝通妥善解決若開邦的有關問題。我們也希望國際社會為此提供建設性幫助,避免使問題複雜化。

同時,中國作為緬甸和孟加拉的友好國家,一直與他們就有關問題保持著密切的溝通。

註3.1

昂山素季的燙手山芋!緬甸若開邦連發恐襲
2017-08-29 06:46:35 來源: 新華社

另一方面,對緬甸軍隊在清剿行動中涉嫌的侵犯人權等違法行為,昂山素季在若開邦問題沒有如西方所想那樣嚴厲批評軍方、為羅興亞人發聲,導致曾作為西方理念標杆人物的她遭受西方輿論批評,光環褪色。

聯合國方面今年2月發佈一份報告,援引逃至孟加拉的羅興亞人的證詞,指認緬甸軍警在清剿行動中存在針對羅興亞人的肆意逮捕、強姦、縱火等行為。為此,緬甸政府成立由副總統牽頭的調查委員會奔赴若開邦調查。

緬甸邊境員警總指揮山倫7月接受記者團採訪時稱,調查委員會發現不少指認為虛報,數字有誇張,一些羅興亞人受幕後勢力威脅,向媒體和國際組織說謊。

今年7月,緬甸政府允許聯合國特派調查員李亮喜進入若開邦。李亮喜結束12天的訪問後批評緬甸還在用前軍政府時期的「措施」,稱「羅興亞人的情況自她去年1月訪問若開邦以來未有改善」。昂山素季辦公室說,李亮喜的發言“讓人失望”。

(楊舟、莊北寧 新華社專特稿)

註四

「一帶一路」上的中緬管道
2017/04/28 資訊來源: 中國網

中緬原油管道由中國石油和緬甸油氣公司合資建設,起點位於緬甸西海岸馬德島,全長771公里,設置站場5座,緬甸境內設計年輸量2200萬噸,緬甸下載量200萬噸,並建設一座規模為30萬噸級的原油碼頭。

中緬天然氣管道由中國石油、韓國浦項制鐵大宇公司、印度石油海外公司、緬甸油氣公司、韓國燃氣公司、印度燃氣公司共同出資建設,起點位於若開邦皎漂蘭裡島,敷設22公里後與原油管道並行或同溝敷設,全長793公里,設置站場6座,緬甸下載點前年設計輸量120億立方米,緬甸下載量為管輸量的20%。

專案遵循中國石油的全球安全環保文化,嚴格遵守緬甸政府有關環境保護的相關法律法規,將珍愛環境的理念貫穿到管道建設全過程。管道線路設計繞行生態敏感區、文化遺產保護區,並將環保條款列入EPC合同,聘請專業環境監理對承包商進行環保監督和管理,建設全過程實現環境“零污染、零事件”。2016年,項目聘請國際協力廠商評價機構ERM公司完成中緬油氣管道環境與社會影響後評價工作,並出具專業報告。

專案立足緬甸本地物資供應與服務市場,優先考慮緬甸本地企業,培養本地工程分包商、材料供應商和服務商,先後有220多家本地企業參與了管道項目建設,涉及材料、設備、辦公設施、生活物資、安保、法律諮詢等多個領域。

專案及時公開披露資訊,接受社會各界監督。在緬召開三次媒體見面會,持續每年更新中英緬三種語言的《中緬油氣管道專案手冊》,積極正面回應社會關注的管道安全、環境保護、土地賠償和社會公益等熱點問題。在徵用土地過程中,專案堅持規範操作,參考當地政府、合作夥伴及村民的意見制定賠償方案,確保村民利益,做到先賠付再用地,並把補償款直接發放到村民手裡。

註五

朱諾:中國為什麼出面斡旋緬甸羅興亞人問題?
阿波羅新聞網 2017-04-30 訊

中國確實在緬甸若開邦進行了大規模的投資,並且計畫在今後的幾十年中,對該地區追加更大的投入。今年4月10日,中緬原油管道正式運營,與其並行的中緬天然氣管道已於2013年9月30日開通,這項總投資超過25億美元的項目是中國能源安全戰略的重要組成部分,其起點正是位於緬甸若開邦的皎漂市,其管道則橫跨整個若開邦。此外,2016年1月,由中國中信集團牽頭的投資聯合體還拿下了皎漂經濟特區和深水港等專案,這些項目的投資額據稱高達90億美元。

中國在孟加拉一側也有多項大型投資,包括公路、橋樑等基礎設施,中資石油企業剛剛從美國雪佛龍公司手中買下三處位於孟加拉的天然氣田,停擺三年的“孟中印緬經濟走廊(BCIM-EC)”也於本月恢復了第三輪談判。這個經濟走廊將是聯通中國、印度、東盟三大市場的樞紐性項目,也是“一帶一路”倡議在這些市場中得以進一步推進的目標專案,而孟緬邊境將是這個走廊的核心地區。

註六

Second, Kyawkpyuh Township is the location of various on-going and planned industrial projects, including an oil and gas terminal at Madae Island, which already serves as the starting point for an oil and gas pipeline to Yunnan in China. The terminal receives gas from the fields off the coast of Rakhine, and functions as an offloading site for international oil tankers. Kyawkpyuh is also the site of a planned Special Economic Zone (SEZ) and deep seaport, expected to be developed mainly by a Chinese-led consortium. As currently planned, the SEZ would cover dozens of villages, and contain designated industrial parks for different industries.

註6.1

中華人民共和國

緬甸若開邦兩塊新氣田將投產並銷往中國
文章來源:駐緬甸經商參處  2017-03-16 11:32

據《緬甸環球新光報》3月15日報導,緬甸皎漂地區農村發展協會(Kyaukpyu Rural Development Association)表示,若開邦的瑞(Shwe)天然氣田正在開採,此外還有兩塊新氣田近年內將投產。這兩塊氣田由韓國大宇集團(Daewoo)和韓國浦項-大宇公司(Posco-Daewoo)勘探,正在實施環境影響評價(EIA)。據悉,新發現的瑞漂(Shwe Phyu)和米亞(Mya)天然氣田,分別位於離岸A-1和A-3區塊,臨近瑞(Shwe)天然氣田所處區塊。目前,瑞(Shwe)天然氣田每天產出約5.6億立方英尺天然氣,銷往中國。據報導,這兩塊新氣田產出的天然氣也將運往中國。

註七

Over time, the SEZ may potentially become a dynamic economic engine, generating jobs, growth and renewed optimism for communities in Rakhine – by itself and through spin-off industries enabled by the SEZ. Yet, there are reasons for concern. The history of previous investments in Kyawkpyuh, as well as other SEZs in Myanmar, suggests that the risk of negative consequences will be significant and economic improvements for local communities limited. For instance, the construction of the oil and gas pipeline caused significant local tension related to land seizures, insufficient compensation for damages, environmental degradation, and an influx of foreign workers instead of increased employment opportunities for local communities. While the Government has publicly stated the SEZ will be undertaken in line with international standards on resettlements, there are concerns that it is already not following its own laws in cases of land acquisition.6

皎漂,緬甸若開邦主要城鎮之一,位於緬甸西部,仰光西北約400公里。皎漂坐落於孟加拉灣東岸,與蘭里島隔康伯米爾灣相望,有重要漁港和機場,人口19,456人。 2009年,中國宣布將援助緬甸在皎漂建設大型深水港,並將從皎漂開始,向北修建一條輸油管線直達雲南省昆明市。

註八

3. MAIN FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF RAKHINE STATE

Recommendations:

1. The Commission acknowledges that the question of resource sharing between the Union and State Governments will be dealt with in the context of the national peace process and constitutional reform. Nevertheless, the Commission urges the Government to increase the participation of Rakhine’s local communities in decision making affecting the development of the state, and find ways to ensure that local communities benefit from investments – including natural resource extraction – in Rakhine State.

2. The Government should ensure adequate compensation for appropriated land.

3. The Commission reiterates that the Government of Myanmar should carry out a comprehensive assessment (or a so-called strategic environment assessment) for Kyawkpyuh and its environs to explore how the Special Economic Zone (SEZ) may affect local communities and map how other economic sectors in the state may benefit (or possibly suffer) from the SEZ. Moreover, the Government should require foreign companies involved in the development of the SEZ to develop robust mechanisms for information sharing and consultation with local communities and civil society, in accordance with principles of corporate social responsibility.

4. The Government should carry out labour market assessments – as well as a mapping of anticipated labour needs generated by planned industrial development in Rakhine, including the SEZ – in order to design targeted vocational training. If vocational training is not market-linked, it will simply present incentives for migration.

5. The Government should be particularly sensitive to the needs of women whose labour force participation remains low. In labour market assessments, their potential and needs should be given special attention. In vocational training, women should be prioritized.

6. The Government should continue to invest heavily in infrastructure, including roads, waterways, jetties, electricity, drinking water and internet provision. In order to boost tourism, the Government should ensure that the planned airport in Mrauk U is constructed.

7. In order to increase productivity, the Government should expand extension services to farmers, including mechanization, provision of quality seeds, and training in modern agricultural techniques.

8. The Government should address regulatory issues that currently constrain SMEs and family businesses. These include: ○ Reforms related to lending, such as ending 1-year maximum loan terms, introducing flexibility to interest rate fixation, and providing incentives for micro-finance providers to engage with businesses in Rakhine. ○ Expansion of access to agricultural credit for all communities. ○ Removal of the Ministry of Hotels and Tourism prohibition on guesthouses and B&Bs of less than ten rooms, that presents barriers to entry for family-owned enterprises.

9. The Government should seek to reduce red tape in order to promote business, and expand accepted documentation to receive business licenses, not least as a way to include more Muslim businesses within the formal economic sector and reduce barriers to entry.

10. To ensure that mitigation and adaptation measures are in place to counter the adverse effects of climate change, the Government should urgently step up its efforts to strengthen the capabilities of communities to adopt climate resilient options. Critical measures include the development and distribution of resilient seed varieties, crop diversification, increased water storage options, drip irrigation and strengthening the availability of climate-sensitive advisory services for farmers. The Government should also seek to improve the state’s irrigation systems through the construction of embankments. To this end, the Government could subsidize contracted cash-for-work labour.

廣告