國際

戰爭沒有責任在誰方

廣告
戰爭沒有責任在誰方

廣告

香港全大傳媒正以「最後警告」、「開戰在即」報導中印衝突。戰爭不會解決中印不丹之間的領土問題。中國不可以如中越戰爭般打到新德里。這類局部戰爭,大家都贏不了什麼。習近平雖然名為軍委主席,但他不會打仗,只會益了軍頭。這點小聰明他應該有的。

對於這類問題。筆者的立場是:一不是民族大義,二歷史無助解決政治,三打仗解決不了問題,四制做既成事實於事無補,五這些二戰留下的問題指責美帝冇意義,六戰爭永遠是人民當災。戰爭不會有助港獨,只會令中港愚民更愚。一般地說,問題始終交到外交部處理。筆者觀察致此,認為今次打不成,其理由如下:

習近平上任之初

習近平在2012年當選中共中央總書記和中共中央軍委主席成為最高領導人。那時他並不好戰,希望與印度解決領土紛爭。中國在2012年1月與印度簽署8點協議(註一),協議不談領土問題,但承認各自的巡邏線 ─ Line of Actual Control in the India-China Border Areas。它提出成立協調機制。

Article VI
The Working Mechanism will address issues and situations that may arise in the border areas that affect the maintenance of peace and tranquillity and will work actively towards maintaining the friendly atmosphere between the two countries.

在2012年12月,國務委員戴秉國與印方會面,討論了談判框架,和以三步方式,最終解決邊界問題。

The two sides also summarized the discussions on the framework of resolution for the China-India boundary issue and reached relevant consensus. Both sides reiterated they will adhere to the “three-step" roadmap, stick to the political guiding principles for the settlement of the boundary issue and bear in mind the overall situation of bilateral ties from a political point of view.

China and India agreed to maintain peace and tranquility of the border areas before a final settlement on the issue.

這次會議成果正是今天印度不斷提出,而中方認為無關。中方說這是一次非正式會議。印方引用:雙方同意,中印和第三國共同商討解決「三方接壤點」(註3)。

Point 13 of the common understanding states that "The tri-junction boundary points between India, China and third countries will be finalized in consultation with the concerned countries.”

這次會議有專文討論(註四),指出所謂非正式會談令問題無法進展。

the latest “informal meeting” in early December 2012 are also no guide to the way forward

但無論如何,當時的氣氛是積極的。兩國代表在2013年1月還說未來5至10年大把世界一齊撈(註五)。

He said that in the next five to 10 years, China and India will see a strategically important period of opportunities to develop their relations

戴秉國在2013年1月更開心到打電話到印度(註六),大談發展戰略性合作伙伴。

Indian side is willing to make joint efforts with China to push forward the strategic cooperative partnership.

中國外交部在2014年在印度一章(註7)內寫下:領土談判進展良好,雙方同意,若兩軍出現衝突,大家可以坐下來傾掂佢。

Boundary talks between the two countries were carried forward steadily. The two sides held the 16th Meeting of the Chinese and Indian Special Representatives on the Boundary Question in Beijing, and exchanged views on the implementation of the consensus reached by the leaders of the two countries, settlement of the boundary question and development of bilateral relations, and regional and international issues of mutual interest. The Working Mechanism for Consultation and Coordination on China- India Border Affairs held its third and fourth meetings. The two countries also promptly handled the situation when their border troops came to a face-to-face situation in South Tianwendian Valley (Depsang Plains area referred to by the Indian side).

中方在8月2日突然發表立場書(註8),其內容了無新意,它在之前的記者會中早已交代。印度外交部作了回應(註3)。但這份立場書和翌日的記者會(註9)中,它說出了二個事實:

一,印方人員己由270人撤至48人;

二,這條路距離印度邊境(中方承認的)只有100米。

中共自己說出了,所謂「改善當地的交通,便利當地牧民放牧」全屬廢話,而且是有意挑起事端。事件說明,習近平改變了治國之道,走向更為好戰。

附錄

註一

India-China Agreement on the Establishment of a Working Mechanism for Consultation and Coordination on India-China Border Affairs
January 17, 2012

Agreement between The Government of the Republic of India and The Government of the People's Republic of China on the Establishment of a Working Mechanism for Consultation and Coordination on India-China Border Affairs

The Government of the Republic of India and the Government of the People's Republic of China (hereinafter referred to as the "two sides");

Firmly believing that respecting and abiding by the Line of Actual Control pending a resolution of the Boundary Question between the two countries as well as maintaining and strengthening peace and tranquility in the India-China border areas is very significant for enhancing mutual trust and security between the two countries, for resolving the Boundary Question at an early date and for building the India-China Strategic and Cooperative Partnership for Peace and Prosperity;

Desiring to materialize the spirit of the Agreement between the Government of the Republic of India and the Government of the People's Republic of China on the Maintenance of Peace and Tranquility Along the Line of Actual Control in the India-China Border Areas signed on 7th September 1993, the Agreement between the Government of the Republic of India and the Government of the People's Republic of China on Confidence Building Measures in the Military Field Along the Line of Actual Control in the India-China Border Areas signed on 29th November 1996 and the Protocol between the Government of the Republic of India and the Government of the People's Republic of China on Modalities for the Implementation of Confidence Building Measures in the Military Field Along the Line of Actual Control in the India-China Border Areas signed on 11th April 2005;

Aiming for timely communication of information on the border situation, for appropriately handling border incidents, for earnestly undertaking other cooperation activities in the India-China border areas, have agreed as follows:

Article I
The two sides agree to establish a Working Mechanism for Consultation and Coordination on India-China Border Affairs (hereinafter referred to as "the Working Mechanism") to deal with important border affairs related to maintaining peace and tranquility in the India-China border areas.

Article II
The Working Mechanism will be headed by a Joint Secretary level official from the Ministry of External Affairs of the Republic of India and a Director General level official from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China and will be composed of diplomatic and military officials of the two sides.

Article III
The Working Mechanism will study ways and means to conduct and strengthen exchanges and cooperation between military personnel and establishments of the two sides in the border areas.

Article IV
The Working Mechanism will explore the possibility of cooperation in the border areas that are agreed upon by the two sides.

Article V
The Working Mechanism will undertake other tasks that are mutually agreed upon by the two sides but will not discuss resolution of the Boundary Question or affect the Special Representatives Mechanism.

Article VI
The Working Mechanism will address issues and situations that may arise in the border areas that affect the maintenance of peace and tranquillity and will work actively towards maintaining the friendly atmosphere between the two countries.

Article VII
The Working Mechanism will hold consultations once or twice every year alternately in India and China. Emergency consultations, if required, may be convened after mutual agreement.

Article VIII
This Agreement shall come into force on the date of its signature. It may be revised, amended, or terminated with the consent of the two sides. Any revision or amendment, mutually agreed by the two sides, shall form an integral part of this Agreement.

Signed in duplicate in Hindi, Chinese and English languages at New Delhi, on 17th January 2012, all three versions being equally authentic. In case of divergence the English text shall prevail.

註二

Dai Bingguo戴秉國 Holds Talks with India's National Security Advisor Menon

2012/12/03

On December 3, 2012, China's State Councilor Dai Bingguo held talks with India's National Security Advisor Shiv Shankar Menon in Beijing. The two sides exchanged views on the development of Sino-Indian relations in a frank and friendly atmosphere.

The 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (CPC) reaffirmed that China will unswervingly stay on the path of peaceful development and continue to hold high the banner of peace, development, cooperation and mutual benefit, said Dai. China's policy on India is in line with the foreign policy thinking stated by the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, according to Dai. He noted that as two large emerging countries, both China and India are facing the historic task of developing economy and improving people's livelihood. The interests of China and India are linked to each other and the two's fates are related, Dai said. China welcomes the development of India. China always regards its relations with India as one of its most important diplomatic relations, according to Dai, who stressed that China sincerely wants to be India's strategic partner on the basis of equality, mutual trust, inclusiveness, mutual learning, cooperation and mutual benefit. Dai said that the Chinese side is committed to developing long-term, stable, good-neighborly, friendly and cooperative relations with India.

Bilateral cooperation in the last 10 years has witnessed remarkable results in various fields, the state councilor said, noting that China and India have respected each other, properly handled their differences and explored an effective way to get along with each other. The international situation will continue to undergo profound and complex changes. China and India should size up the situation, grasp the opportunity, adhere to dialogue and cooperation, increase mutual trust, remove interference and join hands to achieve peaceful coexistence and common development. Every step forward in the two countries' development as well as bilateral ties will contribute to the peace, security and cooperation in the world, Dai said.

Menon first congratulated on the successful conclusion of the 18th National Congress of the CPC. He said that India and China share common views on many major issues and their consensus is far greater than differences. Developing relations with China is one of the priorities of India's foreign policy, he said. This not only serves the interests of both countries, but also conforms to the trend of world development. He stressed that India will not participate in any attempt to contain China. The Indian side hopes to further strengthen bilateral high-level exchanges, maintain dialogue and consultation, expand cooperation in trade, investment, service and other fields, promote infrastructure interconnection and enhance border trade, according to Menon. He believed India-China relations will have a brighter future.

The two sides also summarized the discussions on the framework of resolution for the China-India boundary issue and reached relevant consensus. Both sides reiterated they will adhere to the “three-step" roadmap, stick to the political guiding principles for the settlement of the boundary issue and bear in mind the overall situation of bilateral ties from a political point of view. The two sides confirmed they will speed up work to further narrow differences, on the basis of peace and friendship, equal consultation, mutual respect and mutual understanding. China and India agreed to maintain peace and tranquility of the border areas before a final settlement on the issue. Both sides agreed to create a favorable atmosphere and conditions for the final settlement of the border issue and agreed that it should not affect the positive development of China-India ties.

The two sides also exchanged views on relevant international and regional issues.

註3

Statement by External Affairs Minister in Rajya Sabha on Doklam issue (Uncorrected transcript)
August 03, 2017
Hon’ble Deputy Chairman, our relations with China have recently come under renewed focus due to developments in the Doklam area in the Sikkim sector close to the India-China-Bhutan tri-junction boundary.

India’s position on this issue has been articulated in the press statement issued by the Ministry of External Affairs on June 30th. Our concerns emanate from Chinese action on the ground which have implications for the determination of the tri-junction boundary point between India, China and Bhutan and the alignment of India-China boundary in the Sikkim sector.

Both these aspects of tri-junction points and India-China boundary alignment in the Sikkim sector had been earlier addressed in a written common understanding reached between the Special Representatives of India and China on the boundary question in December 2012.

Point 13 of the common understanding states that "The tri-junction boundary points between India, China and third countries will be finalized in consultation with the concerned countries.” Since 2012 we have not held any discussion on the tri-junction with Bhutan. The Chinese action in the Doklam area is therefore of concern.

With regard to the boundary in the Sikkim sector there are still steps to be covered before the boundary is finalized. This understanding has been reflected in the Common Understanding of December 2012 in point number 12 which states that "There is mutual agreement on the basis of the alignment of the India China boundary in the Sikkim sector as provided by the convention between China and Great Britain relating to Tibet and Sikkim signed in 1890.

During the Eighth Special Representatives meeting in June 2006, the Chinese side had in fact handed over a non-paper for separate agreement on the boundary in Sikkim sector. The non-paper had proposed that "Both sides may, based on the above mentioned historical treaty i.e. 1890 Convention verify and determine the specific alignment of the Sikkim sector and produce a common record.”

On this basis as the initial result of the boundary settlement both sides may negotiate a final agreement on the boundary alignment in the Sikkim sector to replace the historical treaty. Subsequently in the Special Representatives meeting the Chinese side has made the proposal for finalizing the boundary in Sikkim sector terming it as an early harvest of the SR process thus clearly confirming that the boundary in the Sikkim sector is not yet finalized. Otherwise they would not have used this term "early harvest” as we say "low hanging fruit.”

We have noted that the Chinese side has selectively quoted parts of Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru’s letter of 22nd March, 1959 pertaining to the India-China boundary in the Sikkim sector. A full and accurate account of that letter would have also brought out Prime Minister Nehru’s assertion that was clearly based on the boundary alignment as shown in our Indian published maps.

The Chinese side in their recent document published on the website of their Foreign Ministry had expressed commitment to maintaining peace and tranquility in the India-China border areas. India always believes that peace and tranquility in the India-China border is an important pre-requisite for smooth development of our bilateral relations. We will continue to engage with the Chinese side through diplomatic channels to find a mutually acceptable solution on the basis of the Astana Consensus between our leaders. I note the sense of the house is supportive in this regard in keeping the traditional friendship with Bhutan, we will also continue to maintain close consultation and coordination with the Royal Government of Bhutan.

Thank you.

註四

India-China Border Parleys:
New ‘Signs’ of Walking the Talk
P S Suryanarayana1 https://www.files.ethz.ch/isn/156406/ISAS_Insights_193_-_India-China_141...

Emphatically, this observation applies to the latest meeting between the Special Representatives of the two countries – Dai Bingguo of China and Shivshankar Menon of India – in Beijing on 3 December 2012. A degree of masterly vagueness about the exact status of this “informal meeting” – China’s official categorisation – added to the political mystique of this round of dialogue.

Three-Stage Process

The future-relevant aspect of the Dai-Menon exercise (in early December 2012) is that China and India have now confirmed the points of confidential agreement already reached. As part of a three-stage process, the two sides are now trying to fashion a framework for the final settlement of their Himalayan border dispute. These complicated efforts form the core of the ongoing second stage, the first stage having yielded in 2005 a Sino-Indian accord, or more precisely a mini-accord, on the political and guiding principles for the quest of a final solution.

However, with the ongoing second stage likely to be enormously tough by any standard, it is pretty difficult, even for the negotiators themselves, to predict the timing of onset of the third and concluding phase.
Cartographic and field-level finessing of an agreed boundary is likely to be undertaken during the future-specific concluding phase. All these broad and general aspects of the Special Representatives process are really common knowledge among seasoned diplomats and expert-observers.

Given the highly privileged nature of the Special Representatives process, the matter-of-fact official comments on the latest “informal meeting” in early December 2012 are also no guide to the way forward. Shortly after the latest Dai-Menon meeting, the Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesman Hong Lei said: “Both the Chinese and Indian sides spoke highly of the important progress in China-India relations. The two sides agreed that as the world’s two largest developing countries, China and India face important opportunities and common challenges and enjoy broad prospects for cooperation”.
註五

Dai Bingguo: China and India Should Explore a Way of Maintaining Friendly Coexistence

2013/01/11

On January 10, 2013, Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh met with visiting Chinese State Councilor Dai Bingguo, who was attending the third meeting of BRICS High Representatives for Security Issues in the Indian capital New Delhi.

Dai conveyed to the Indian prime minister cordial greetings and good wishes from Chinese President Hu Jintao and Premier Wen Jiabao, and delivered a letter from Xi Jinping, General Secretary of the Communist Party of China (CPC) Central Committee, to Prime Minister Singh. Xi said in the letter that China-India relations have maintained stable development in the past few years, which has brought about substantial benefits to the two countries and the two peoples. Xi said that the world has enough space for China and India to achieve common development, and the world also needs their common development. He said that China will, as it has been doing, attach great importance to developing relations with India and expects to carry out close cooperation with India to create a brighter future of their bilateral relations.

Dai said during his meeting with Prime Minister Singh that in the past 10 years, China and India have seen great development in their bilateral relations. The two countries have efficiently controlled their disputes and differences and have pushed forward development of bilateral relations, while gradually finding a pragmatic way of maintaining friendly relationship of co- existence between them. He said that in the next five to 10 years, China and India will see a strategically important period of opportunities to develop their relations. Dai expressed his hope that the two countries will highly cherish, maintain and develop the momentum of good relationship while expressing confidence that China-India relations will see greater and better development with the care and guidance of the leaders of the two countries.

Prime Minister Singh asked Dai to convey his cordial greetings to Chinese leaders and expressed his appreciation of the view of General Secretary Xi Jinping on the future development of bilateral ties. Singh emphasized that it is a priority of the Indian government to maintain good relations with China and that India is willing to work with China to grasp the opportunity in enhancing pragmatic cooperation in all areas as well as communication and coordination in international issues and in deepening India-China strategic cooperative partnership.

Dai also met with Indian National Security Adviser Shiv Shankar Menon on January 11.

註六

Dai Bingguo Holds Telephone Conversation with India's National Security Advisor Menon

2013/03/11
On March 11, 2013, State Councilor Dai Bingguo held a telephone conversation with India's National Security Advisor Shiv Shankar Menon, exchanging views on China-India relations.

Dai said China attaches great importance to Sino-Indian relations. Over the past 10 years, Sino-Indian relations have made great progress, which brings great benefits to the two countries and their peoples and makes important contributions to the peace and prosperity of the region and the world at large. The two countries have explored an effective way of maintaining friendly co-existence, which has not only laid a sound foundation for the future development of bilateral relations, but also provided a good example for big powers and neighbouring countries to properly handle differences and seek common development. We are confident that with the joint efforts of both sides, China and India will embrace a better tomorrow for their relations.

Menon agreed with Dai's positive comments on bilateral relations, saying the development of Sino-Indian relations embodies the painstaking efforts of the leaders of the two countries and people from all walks of life, and the hard-won results should be cherished. The Indian side is willing to make joint efforts with China to push forward the strategic cooperative partnership.

註七
中國外交部2014
http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/wjb_663304/zzjg_663340/yzs_663350/gjlb_6...

China and India

In 2013, the strategic and cooperative partnership for peace and prosperity between the People's Republic of China and the Republic of India further deepened, with exchanges and cooperation expanded in all sectors. The two countries maintained close coordination and collaboration in regional and international affairs.

The two sides kept frequent high-level exchanges and contact. In March, President Xi Jinping met with Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh on the sidelines of the Fifth BRICS Summit in Durban, South Africa, and Premier Li Keqiang had a telephone conversation with Prime Minister Singh. In May, Premier Li Keqiang made India the first stop of his first overseas visit after taking office. In January, State Councilor Dai Bingguo attended the third Meeting of BRICS High Representatives for Security Issues in India. On the sidelines of the meeting, State Councilor Dai had a bilateral meeting with Prime Minister Singh and presented a letter of CPC Central Committee General Secretary Xi Jinping to Prime Minister Singh. He also had talks with Indian National Security Adviser Shivshankar Menon. In June, State Councilor Yang Jiechi and Indian National Security Advisor Menon held the 16th Meeting of the Chinese and Indian Special Representatives on the Boundary Question in Beijing. In October, Indian Prime Minister Singh paid an official visit to China. In May, Indian Minister of External Affairs Salman Khurshid visited China. In July, Indian Defense Minister A.K. Anthony visited China. In addition, CPPCC Vice Chairman Wang Zhengwei and Deputy Chief of the PLA General Staff Lieutenant General Qi Jianguo, among others, visited India. Indian Defense Secretary Sashi Kant Sharma and General-Secretary Prakash Karat of the Communist Party of India (Marxist) visited China. On the sidelines of the fourth Meeting of BRICS High Representatives for Security Issues in Capetown, South Africa, State Councilor Yang Jiechi had a bilateral meeting with Indian National Security Advisor Menon. Foreign Minister Wang Yi met with Indian Minister of External Affairs Khurshid during the East Asian Foreign Ministers' Meetings, UN General Assembly and China-Russia- India Foreign Ministers Meeting. Vice Foreign Ministers Song Tao and Cheng Guoping met with Indian National Security Adviser Menon and exchanged views on the bilateral relations and other issues, respectively on the margins of the Munich Security Conference and China-Russia-India Senior Security Representatives Meeting on the Afghan Issue in Moscow. In April, Indian Prime Minister Singh sent a letter of condolences to Premier Li Keqiang on the earthquake in Lushan, Sichuan Province. In mid-June, severe floods hit northern India. Premier Li Keqiang and Foreign Minister Wang Yi sent messages of condolences to Indian Prime Minister Singh and Minister of External Affairs Khurshid respectively. The Chinese government provided the Indian government with US$200,000 in disaster relief assistance, and the Red Cross Society of China provided the Indian Red Cross Society with US$50,000 in assistance.

Practical cooperation between the two countries kept expanding. China was India's second largest trading partner, and India China's 12th trading partner. India was an important overseas market of contracted projects for China. By the end of 2013, China had signed a total of US$62.399 billion worth of contracted projects in India and achieved a revenue of US$38.8 billion. During Premier Li Keqiang's visit to India, the two countries jointly proposed to launch a BCIM Economic Corridor, which received a positive response from Bangladesh and Myanmar. In September, the sixth China-India Financial Dialogue was held in Beijing. In December, the first Joint Study Group meeting of the BCIM Economic Corridor was held in Kunming, Yunnan Province, and the four parties signed the Minutes of meeting and the Joint Study Program. China and India also agreed to carry out cooperation in industrial parks, railway and other areas, and explore the potential for a regional trade arrangement.

Defense exchanges of the two countries continued to deepen. In January, Deputy Chief of the PLA General Staff Lieutenant General Qi Jianguo and Indian Defense Secretary Sharma co-chaired the fifth China- India Defense Dialogue in Beijing. Air Force General Xu Qiliang, Vice Chairman of the Central Military Commission, met with Secretary Sharma and his delegation. In March, Deputy Chief of the PLA General Staff Lieutenant General Qi Jianguo paid an official visit to India and had an exchange of views with the Indian side on military-to-military relations. In July, State Councilor and Minister of Defense General Chang Wanquan had talks with the visiting Indian Defense Minister Anthony. The two sides exchanged views on regional security situation and the military relations between the two countries. In August, Chinese Navy hospital ship "Peace Ark" visited the Indian port city of Mumbai. In October, the "Hand-in- Hand 2013" China-India Army Counter-Terrorism Joint Training Exercise was held in Chengdu.

The two foreign ministries maintained close communication and cooperation. They signed the Protocol Between the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China and the Ministry of External Affairs of the Republic of India on Cooperation in Bilateral Relations, held the fifth Ministerial Strategic Dialogue, the sixth China-India counterterrorism consultation, the first consultation on Central Asian affairs and annual diplomatic officials consultation, and launched the mechanism of mutual visits of their spokespersons. The Indian high-level diplomats delegation and young diplomats delegation paid successful visits to China.

Boundary talks between the two countries were carried forward steadily. The two sides held the 16th Meeting of the Chinese and Indian Special Representatives on the Boundary Question in Beijing, and exchanged views on the implementation of the consensus reached by the leaders of the two countries, settlement of the boundary question and development of bilateral relations, and regional and international issues of mutual interest. The Working Mechanism for Consultation and Coordination on China- India Border Affairs held its third and fourth meetings. The two countries also promptly handled the situation when their border troops came to a face-to-face situation in South Tianwendian Valley (Depsang Plains area referred to by the Indian side).

Positive results were achieved in cultural and people-to-people exchanges between the two countries. The first China-India Media Forum was jointly held by the Chinese State Council Information Office and the Indian External Affairs Ministry in New Delhi. Minister of the State Council Information Office Cai Mingzhao and Indian Minister of External Affairs Khurshid attended the opening ceremony. The 100-member Chinese and Indian youth delegations exchanged visits for the seventh consecutive year, and were received by Indian Prime Minister Singh and Chinese Premier Li Keqiang respectively. Sister city agreements were signed between Beijing and Delhi, Kunming and Calcutta, and Chengdu and Bangalore, the first ever in history.

The two countries maintained close coordination and collaboration in international affairs. They stayed in close communication in regional and international organizations such as the United Nations, G20, BRICS, BASIC and the China-India-Russia mechanism, worked together to advance the WTO Doha Round, made active efforts to address climate change, terrorism, food and energy security, and safeguarded the common interests of both the two countries and developing countries as a whole.

Premier Li Keqiang's Official Visit to India and Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh's Official Visit to China

From May 19 to 22, Premier Li Keqiang paid an official visit to India and visited New Delhi and Mumbai. During his visit, Premier Li had talks with Prime Minister Singh and met with other Indian leaders, including President Pranab Mukherjee, Vice President Mohammad Hamid Ansari, President of the Indian National Congress Party Sonia Gandhi and leader of the opposition in Lok Sabha Sushma Swaraj. The two sides released the Joint Statement Between the People's Republic of China and the Republic of India. Premier Li delivered a speech entitled Seize the Opportunities in China-India Strategic Cooperation at the Indian Council of World Affairs, and addressed the dinner meeting of China-India Business Cooperation Summit. The two sides signed ten cooperation documents in political, economic and cultural areas.

From October 22 to 24, Prime Minister Singh paid an official visit to China. President Xi Jinping, Premier Li Keqiang and NPC Chairman Zhang Dejiang met with him on separate occasions. The two sides released the Joint Statement-A Vision for Future Development of China-India Strategic and Cooperative Partnership. Prime Minister Singh delivered a speech in the Party School of the CPC Central Committee. Relevant departments of the two sides signed nine cooperation documents on transportation, electricity, border cooperation and culture.

Being the first time that a Chinese Premier and an Indian Prime Minister exchanged visits in the same year since 1954, the mutual visits by Premier Li Keqiang and Prime Minister Singh were a milestone in the development of China-India relations.

註八

印度邊防部隊在中印邊界錫金段越界進入中國領土的事實和中國的立場(全文)
2017-08-02 18:14:32 來源: 新華社

新華社北京8月2日電
印度邊防部隊在中印邊界錫金段越界進入中國領土的事實和中國的立場

1.洞朗地區位於中國西藏自治區亞東縣,西與印度錫金邦相鄰,南與不丹王國相接。1890年,中國和英國簽訂《中英會議藏印條約》,劃定了中國西藏地方和錫金之間的邊界。根據該條約規定,洞朗地區位於邊界線中國一側,是無可爭議的中國領土。長期以來,中國邊防部隊和牧民一直在該地區開展巡邏和放牧活動。目前,洞朗地區與錫金之間的邊界是中印邊界錫金段的一部分。

2.2017年6月16日,中方在洞朗地區進行道路施工。6月18日,印度邊防部隊270餘人攜帶武器,連同2台推土機,在多卡拉山口越過錫金段邊界線100多米,進入中國境內阻撓中方的修路活動,引發局勢緊張。印度邊防部隊越界人數最多時達到400余人,連同2台推土機和3頂帳篷,越界縱深達到180多米。截至7月底,印度邊防部隊仍有40多人和1台推土機在中國領土上非法滯留。

3.事件發生後,中國邊防部隊在現地採取了緊急應對措施。6月19日,中方通過外交途徑緊急向印方提出嚴正交涉,對印方非法越界行為予以強烈抗議和譴責,要求印方立即將越界的印度邊防部隊撤回到邊界線印度一側。中國外交部、國防部、中國駐印度使館在北京和新德里先後多次向印度提出嚴正交涉,強烈要求印度尊重中國的領土主權,立即撤回越界的邊防部隊。中國外交部、國防部發言人多次公開表態,說明事實真相,表明中方立場,並公佈了印軍越界的地圖和現場照片(見附件1)。

4.中印邊界錫金段已由1890年《中英會議藏印條約》(以下簡稱“1890年條約”,見附件2)劃定。該條約第一款規定:“藏、哲之界,以自布坦交界之支莫摯山起,至廓爾喀邊界止,分哲屬梯斯塔及近山南流諸小河,藏屬莫竹及近山北流諸小河,分水流之一帶山頂為界”(注:支莫摯山即今吉姆馬珍山)。此段邊界線走向條約敘述清晰準確,實地邊界線沿分水嶺而行,走向清晰可辨。

5.新中國成立和印度獨立後,兩國政府均繼承了1890年條約以及據此確定的中印邊界錫金段已定界,這反映在印度總理尼赫魯給中國總理周恩來的信件、印度駐華使館給中國外交部的照會、中印邊界問題特別代表會晤印方提交的檔中(見附件3)。長期以來,中印兩國按1890年條約確定的邊界線實施管轄,對於邊界線的具體走向沒有異議。邊界一經條約確定,即受國際法特別保護,不得侵犯。

6.6月18日以來,印度邊防部隊非法越過中印錫金段邊界進入了中國領土,這是不容否認的事實。此次事件發生在邊界線清楚的已定界地區,與過去雙方邊防部隊在未定界地區發生的摩擦有著本質區別。印度邊防部隊越過既定邊界,侵犯了中國主權和領土完整,違反了1890年條約,違反了《聯合國憲章》,是對國際法基本原則和國際關係基本準則的粗暴踐踏,性質非常嚴重。

7.事件發生以來,印度炮製種種“藉口”為其非法行為辯護,有關說法在事實和法律上毫無根據,根本不能成立。

8.中印邊界錫金段已經劃定,洞朗地區是中國領土。中國在自己的領土上進行道路施工,目的是為了改善當地的交通,完全正當合法。中國修路活動沒有越過邊界線,而且提前通報了印度,最大限度體現了善意。印度邊防部隊公然越過雙方承認的邊界線,侵入中國領土,侵犯中國的領土主權。這才是真正企圖改變邊界現狀,也嚴重破壞了中印邊境地區的和平與安寧。

9.印度以中國修路活動帶來“嚴重安全風險”為自己的非法越界行為辯護。聯合國大會1974年12月14日通過的3314號決議規定,不得以任何理由,不論是政治性、經濟性、軍事性或其他性質理由,為一個國家的武裝部隊侵入或攻擊另一國家的領土作辯解。以所謂的“安全關切”為由越過已定邊界線進入鄰國領土,無論從事任何活動,都違反國際法基本原則和國際關係基本準則,都不會為任何一個主權國家所容忍,更不是中印兩個鄰國正常的相處之道。

10.長期以來,印軍在多卡拉山口及其附近地區的邊界線印度一側修建了道路等大量基礎設施,甚至在邊界線上修建碉堡等軍事設施。與此相反,中國在該段邊界線中國一側只進行了少量的基礎設施建設。近年來,印度邊防部隊還阻撓中國邊防部隊沿著邊界線正常巡邏執勤,並企圖越界修建軍事設施,中國邊防部隊對此多次提出抗議並依法拆除印軍越界設施。實際上,正是印度企圖不斷改變中印邊界錫金段現狀,對中國構成嚴重的安全威脅。

11.1890年條約已確定,中印邊界錫金段起自與不丹交界的吉姆馬珍山,這是中印邊界錫金段的東端點,也是中國、印度、不丹的三國交界點。此次印度邊防部隊越界的地點位於中印邊界錫金段的邊界線上,距離吉姆馬珍山約有2000多米之遠。此次事件與三國交界點問題並無關係。印度應尊重1890年條約及其確定的中印邊界錫金段東端點,無權單方面改變既定邊界線及其東端點,更不得以此為由侵犯中國的領土主權。

12.邊界在國際法上具有穩定性和不可侵犯性。由1890年條約確定的中印邊界錫金段持續有效,為中印雙方一再確認。任何一方都須嚴格恪守,不得侵犯。中印雙方正在邊界問題特別代表會晤中探討在錫金段邊界實現解決邊界問題的“早期收穫”,這主要是考慮到錫金段邊界已由1890年條約劃定,且該條約由當時的中國和英國簽署,中印應該以中國和印度的名義簽訂新的邊界條約,以代替1890年條約。但這絲毫不影響中印邊界錫金段的既定邊界性質。

13.洞朗地區歷來屬於中國,一直在中國的有效管轄之下,不存在爭議。中國和不丹都是主權獨立國家,從上世紀80年代開始通過談判協商解決邊界問題,迄今已進行了24輪邊界會談,達成了廣泛共識。兩國雖未正式劃界,但雙方已對邊境地區實施了聯合勘察,對邊境地區的實際情況和邊界線走向存在基本共識。中不邊界問題是中、不兩國的事情,與印度無關。印度作為協力廠商,無權介入並阻撓中不邊界談判進程,更無權為不丹主張領土。印度以不丹為藉口侵入中國領土,不僅侵犯了中國的領土主權,而且是對不丹主權和獨立的挑戰。中國和不丹是友好鄰邦,中國歷來尊重不丹的主權和獨立。在雙方的共同努力下,中不兩國邊境地區一直保持和平安寧。中國願繼續同不丹一道,在不受外來干涉的情況下,通過談判協商解決兩國間的邊界問題。

14.事件發生以來,中國本著最大善意,保持高度克制,努力通過外交管道與印度溝通解決此次事件。但任何國家都不應低估中國政府和人民捍衛領土主權的決心。中國將採取一切必要措施維護自己的正當合法權益。此次事件發生在已定邊界線的中國一側,印度應立即無條件將越界的邊防部隊撤回邊界線印度一側,這是解決此次事件的前提和基礎。

15.中印是兩個最大的發展中國家。中國政府一貫重視發展同印度的睦鄰友好關係,致力於維護兩國邊境地區的和平與安寧。中方敦促印度政府從兩國關係大局和兩國人民的福祉出發,恪守1890年條約及其確定的中印既定邊界,尊重中國的領土主權,遵守和平共處五項原則等國際法基本原則和國際關係基本準則,立即將越界的邊防部隊撤回邊界線印度一側,並徹底調查此次非法越界行為,儘快妥善解決此次事件,恢復兩國邊境地區的和平與安寧。這符合兩國的根本利益,也是本地區國家和國際社會的共同期待。

附件2

中英會議藏印條約

一八九○年三月十七日,光緒十六年二月二十七日,加爾各答。

茲因大清國大皇帝、大英國大君主五印度大後帝,實願固敦兩國睦誼,永遠弗替;又因近來事故,兩國情誼有所不協之處,彼此欲將哲孟雄、西藏邊界事宜,明定界限,用昭久遠,是以大清國大皇帝、大英國大君主擬將此事訂立條款,特派全權大臣議辦,由大清國特派駐藏幫辦大臣副都統銜升;由大英國特派總理五印度執政大臣第一等三式各寶星上議院侯爵蘭;各將所奉全權便宜行事之上諭文憑公同校閱,俱屬妥協,現經議定條約八款,臚列於後:

第一款 藏、哲之界,以自布坦交界之支莫摯山起,至廓爾喀邊界止,分哲屬梯斯塔及近山南流諸小河,藏屬莫竹及近山北流諸小河,分水流之一帶山頂為界。

第二款 哲孟雄由英國一國保護督理,即為依認其內政外交均應專由英國一國徑辦;該部長暨官員等,除由英國經理准行之事外,概不得與無論何國交涉來往。

第三款 中、英兩國互允以第一款所定之界限為准,由兩國遵守,並使兩邊各無犯越之事。

第四款 藏、哲通商,應如何增益便利一事,容後再議,務期彼此均受其益。

第五款 哲孟雄界內遊牧一事,彼此言明,俟查明情形後,再為議訂。

第六款 印、藏官員因公交涉,如何文移往來,一切彼此言明,俟後再商另訂。

第七款 自此條款批准互換之日為始,限以六個月,由中國駐藏大臣、英國印度執政大臣各派委員一人,將第四、第五、第六三款言明隨後議訂各節,兼同會商,以期妥協。

第八款 以上條款既定後,應送呈兩國批准,隨將條款原本在倫敦互換,彼此各執,以昭信守。

光緒十六年二月二十七日,即西曆一千八百九十年三月十七日,在孟臘城繕就華、英文各四份,蓋印畫押。

附件3

一、1959年3月22日印度總理尼赫魯給中國總理周恩來的信

「印度的保護國錫金同中國西藏地方的邊界,是由1890年的英中專約所確定,1895年共同在地面上標定。」

二、1959年9月26日印度總理尼赫魯給中國總理周恩來的信

「1890年的這個條約也確定了錫金和西藏之間的邊界;這條線後來在1895年加以標定。因此,關於錫金同西藏地方的邊界,不存在任何糾紛。」

三、1960年2月12日印度駐華使館給中國外交部的照會

「中國政府知道印度政府同不丹和錫金所有的特殊的條約關係。因此印度政府歡迎中國照會中對於錫金和不丹為一方和西藏為另一方之間的邊界的解釋。照會說,錫金和中國西藏地方之間的邊界早經正式劃定,在地圖上既沒有任何分歧,在實踐中也沒有任何爭論。印度政府願意補充說明,這條邊界在地面上也已標定了。」

四、2006年5月10日印方在中印邊界問題特別代表工作組會議上提交的非文件

「五、雙方同意錫金段的邊界走向。」

註九


外交部發言人耿爽就印軍越界事件有關問題答記者問
2017-08-03

問:中方昨天發佈了《印度邊防部隊在中印邊界錫金段越界進入中國領土的事實和中國的立場》檔,檔提到6月16日,中方在洞朗地區進行道路施工,此前也向印方作了通報,請問施工的目的是什麼?通報的具體情況是怎樣?印方作何回饋?

答:6月16日,中方在中印邊界錫金段中方一側的洞朗地區進行道路施工,目的是為了改善當地的交通,便利當地牧民放牧和邊防部隊巡邏。這是中方在自己領土上的正常活動,完全正當合法。

中方出於善意,分別於5月18日和6月8日通過邊防會晤機制兩次向印方提前作了通報,印方未做任何回饋。6月18日,印度邊防部隊270餘人攜帶武器、連同2台推土機,在多卡拉山口悍然越過錫金段邊界線100多米,進入中國境內阻撓中方的修路活動。

截至8月2日下午,印軍仍有48人連同1台推土機非法滯留在中國領土上。此外,印軍還有大量武裝人員集結在邊界線上和邊界線印方一側。

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